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Ni komuniku ĉiom per kulturaj universaĵoj!

od Grown, 9. augusta 2017

Príspevky: 7

Jazyk: Esperanto

Grown (Zobraziť profil) 9. augusta 2017 1:51:10

==List of cultural universals==

Among the cultural universals listed by Brown (1991) are:

===Language and cognition===
:{{main|Linguistic universal}}
1.
* Language employed to manipulate others
* Language employed to misinform or mislead
* Discrepancies between speech, thought, and action

2.
* Language is [[translation|translatable]]

3.
* [[Abstraction]] in speech and thought

4.
* [[Antonym]]s, [[synonym]]s
* [[Logical predicate|Logical notions]] of "and", "not", "opposite", "equivalent", "part/whole", "general/particular"
* Binary cognitive distinctions
* [[Color term]]s: black, white
* Classification of: age, behavioral propensities, body parts, colors, fauna, flora, inner states, kin, sex, space, tools, weather conditions
* Continua (ordering as cognitive pattern)

* [[Figurative speech]], [[metaphor]]s
* Symbolism, [[symbolic speech]]
* [[Synesthetic]] metaphors
* [[Taboo]]ed utterances
* Special speech for special occasions
* Prestige from proficient use of language (e.g. poetry)
* Planning
* Units of time

===Society===
* [[Given name|Personal names]]
* Family or household
* [[kinship|Kin groups]]
* [[Peer group]]s not based on family
* Actions under self-control distinguished from those not under control
* Affection expressed and felt
* Age grades
* Age statuses
* Age terms
* [[Law]]: rights and obligations, rules of membership
* [[Morality|Moral sentiments]]
* Distinguishing right and wrong, good and bad
* Promise/oath
* Prestige inequalities
* Statuses and roles
* Leaders
* De facto [[oligarchy]]
* [[Property]]
* Coalitions
* Collective identities
* Conflict
* Cooperative labor
* [[Gender role]]s
* Males on average travel greater distances over lifetime
* [[Marriage]]
* Husband older than wife on average
* Copulation normally conducted in privacy
* [[Incest]] prevention or avoidance, incest between mother and son unthinkable or tabooed
* Collective decision making
* [[Etiquette]]
* [[Inheritance]] rules
* Generosity admired, gift giving
* Redress of wrongs, sanctions
* [[Sexual jealousy in humans|Sexual jealousy]]
* [[Sexual violence]]
* [[Shame]]
* [[Territoriality]]
* Triangular awareness (assessing relationships among the self and two other people)
* Some forms of proscribed violence
* Visiting
* [[Trade]]

===Myth, ritual and aesthetics===
{{further|Myth and ritual}}
* [[Magical thinking]]
* Use of magic to increase life and win love
* Beliefs about death
* Beliefs about disease
* Beliefs about fortune and misfortune
* [[Divination]]
* Attempts to control weather
* Dream interpretation
* Beliefs and narratives
* [[Proverb]]s, sayings
* Poetry/[[rhetorics]]
* [[Healing]] practices, medicine
* Childbirth customs
* Rites of passage
* [[Music]], [[rhythm]], [[dance]]
* Play
* Toys, playthings
* Death rituals, mourning
* [[Feasting]]
* [[Body ornamentation (disambiguation)|Body adornment]]
* Hairstyles
* [[Art]]

===Technology===
* Shelter
* [[Control of fire]]
* Tools, tool making
* [[Weapon]]s, spear
* Containers
* [[Cooking]]
* [[Lever]]
* [[Rope|Cordage]]

thyrolf (Zobraziť profil) 9. augusta 2017 8:49:50

Iu en tiu forumo ĉiam furiozas pri krokodilado !

Kiu nur estas ri ?

Altebrilas (Zobraziť profil) 9. augusta 2017 10:21:09

Estus bona ekzerco por vi traduki tion esperanten. Tiel vi ricevos komentojn el kulturaro pli universala! okulumo.gif

Maria45 (Zobraziť profil) 10. augusta 2017 12:46:20

Altebrilas vi pravegas!

Vinisus (Zobraziť profil) 10. augusta 2017 12:51:47

Tiele parolis zaratruŝtro.

Altebrilas (Zobraziť profil) 4. januára 2018 11:54:36

Vinisus:Tiele parolis zaratruŝtro.
Se Zaratruŝtro mem diris tion, mi certe pravegas! okulumo.gif

Vinisus (Zobraziť profil) 4. januára 2018 13:50:38

Jes, vi tute pravas!

Nahor