Skip to the content

Here is a short explanation of important grammatical terms used in this grammar. The explanations are worded from the viewpoint of Esperanto grammar. In other grammars (of Esperanto or of other languages) the terms may be used in a somewhat different manner. The terms in the lernu!-grammar more or less follow the usage of the Plena Analiza Gramatiko by Kalocsay and Waringhien.

A word used to describe a noun or noun-like particle.
circumstantial complement (adjunct)
A part of speech which says in which manner, in which place, at what time, by which tool etc. the action (or the state) or the predicate is occuring. Each part of speech except for predicate, subject, object and predicative, is a circumstancial compliment. (adjekto)
A word used to describe something which is not a noun or noun-like particle (that is a verb, an adjective, an adjective-like particle, another adverb, an adverb-like particle or a whole sentence).
A root which is used mainly to create compound words: suffix or prefix.
A consonant made by a complete constriction which is then released just enough to let the air flow through creating a rubbing sound.
The ordinary type of sentence where the subject is that which acts on the predicate. See passive.
The grammatical ending -N.
A word or phrase which (usually) stands right next to another word or phrase describing the same thing using other words.
An adjective, adjective-like particle, adverb or adverb-like particle, which directly describes another word.
main verb (aka. full verb, lexical verb)
A verb form that can be used as a predicate.
A consonant is produced by partial blockage of the air stream producing a rubbing sound.
Verb form, which expresses an action or state in some future time.
Verbal mood which shows a command (one of the uses of the volitive in Esperanto.
A verbal mood which shows actions and states that are real and actual.
A verbal mood which portrays actions and states in a neutral manner without indicating whether they are real or imaginary.
A particle used as an exclamation.
A verbal mood which shows actions or states unreal or imagined.
coordinating conjunction
A particle which links phrases that play the same role in the sentence.
A speech sound made by blocking airflow.
Consonant made by blocking only the center of the mouth. The air flows freely at the sides of the tongue.
One of the categories of verb forms, which expresses various attitudes of the speaker to the statement. The moods of verbs in Esperanto are infinitive, indicative, volitive and conditional.
A consonant produced by complete blockage of the mouth. The air goes instead through the nose.
A negation particle (like "no, not") is used for making negative sentences.
(about a verb) Can not take an object
A Noun or noun like particle, which does not have a role indicator,(preposition or accusative ending ).
A particle expressing a number.
A role indicator, which shows what is directly affected by the action of the predicate. Sometimes we talk about a "direct object" as opposed to "indirect object". In this grammar the "indirect object" is called the al-adjekto. (circumstantial compliment using 'al' ) An ordinary (direct) object is also called the "accusative object." An indirect object is traditionally also called "dative object".
A word which presents an action or a state as a quality of its subject or object.
A type of "reverse" sentence structure in which, what (in an active) sentence is the object, appears as the subject.
plosive (stop consonant)
A consonant made by complete blockage, after which a burst of air is then released.
Expressing more than one.
An independent phrase which describes the subject or the object by means of a verb.
Main verb of the sentence. A verb which ordinarily has a subject.
An affix which is placed before the other roots.
A particle which shows the role in the sentence of the following clause.
A verb form which expresses an action or state in past time.
present tense
A verbal form which expresses an action or state in the present time.
A particle which is used to stand in for another noun.
Grammatical singular form.
A sentence function which (in an active sentence) shows who or what is performing the action on the predicate.
subordinate conjunction
A particle) which introduces the subordinate clause, linking it to the main clause.
A word which in a main clause can function as a subject, object, vocative, circumstantial compliment, epithet, supplement, or predictive.
An affix which takes its position at the end of other roots.
A direct description (of a word which is not a verb), whose relationship to the described word is shown by a role indicator (a preposition or an accusative ending).
(concerning a verb) Able to take an object.
A word which expresses an action or a state, and which can function as a predicate of the sentence. Included in the notion of verb is also the infinitive although an infinitive does not usually function as a predicate.
A consonant produced by a series of rapid blocks and releases.
A speech sound which is produced without blocking the airflow, and which can take the stress.
A function in the sentence which shows to whom the speech is directed.
A verbal mood which shows that the action or state is not real but only desired.
A word which doesn't take a grammatical ending but which appears in a sentence as is.
Back to the top