Skip to the content


The preposition anstataŭ (instead of) shows something whose role is fulfilled by something else, in whose place something else is used:

  • Anstataŭ kafo li donis al mi teon kun sukero, sed sen kremo. - Instead of coffee he gave me tea with sugar, but without cream.

    He didn't give coffee, but did give tea. The role of coffee (as a beverage) is taken over by tea.

  • Kiam mortis Jobab, ekreĝis anstataŭ li Ĥuŝam el la lando de la Temananoj. - After Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites became king. (Genesis 36:34)
  • Anstataŭ matene, mi nun hejtados la fornon tagmeze. - Instead of in the morning I will now heat up the oven at noon.

    I no longer heat in the morning but at noon.

  • Anstataŭ ĉia respondo la maljunulino nee skuis la kapon. - Instead of any kind of answer the old lady shook her head indicating no.

    She did not give a real answer, but a shake of the head served as an answer.

  • Ĉu mi ne helpu vin, anstataŭ tio, ke vi sola faru la tutan laboron? - Should I not help you, instead of you doing all the work alone?

    Now the intention is that you alone should do all the work. Shouldn't I help you with that instead?

  • Anstataŭ ke ĉiu lernas diversajn lingvojn, ĉiuj ellernadu unu saman lingvon. - Instead of everyone learning different languages, all should learn one and the same language.
  • La aliaj anasoj preferis naĝadi en la kanaloj, anstataŭ viziti ŝin. - The other ducks preferred to swim in the canal instead of visiting her.


The preposition krom shows a thing that is being considered separately. In practice, this basic meaning gives two meanings: krom indicating exception and indication addition.

Krom of exception

Krom of exception shows something for which the rest of the phrase is not valid. If the phrase is positive, the sense of the krom of exception is negative. This sort of positive phrase normally contains ĉiu(j) (every, all), ĉio (everything), or tuta (whole, complete):

  • Tie estis ĉiuj miaj fratoj krom Petro. - There were all my brothers except Peter.

    Peter was not there.

  • Ĉio en ŝi estis juna kaj almenaŭ ŝajne serena, krom la frunto. - Everything about her is young and, at least on the surface, serene, except the forehead.

    The forehead was not like that.

  • La tuta teksto estas korekta, krom unu frazo. - The entire text is correct, except one sentence.

    One sentence is not correct.

If the phrase is negative (with ne (not), a NENI- word, or sen (without)), the meaning of the krom of exception is positive:

  • En la salono estis neniu krom li kaj lia fianĉino. - There was nobody in the living room except for him and his fiancée.

    He and his fiancée were indeed there.

  • Ne ekzistas Dio krom Mi. - There exists no God except Me. (Deuteronomy 32:39)

    I am the only God that exists.

  • En la lastaj monatoj mi, krom miaj profesiaj bezonoj, preskaŭ neniam eliras el la domo. - In the last months I, except for my professional needs, almost never left the house.

    In case of professional needs I do go out.(For clarity one can say krom pro miaj profesiaj bezonoj, but see the following about anstataŭ and krom + other role indicators.

  • Marta kuŝis sur la malmola litaĵo sen ia alia sento krom morta laciĝo. - Martha lay on the hard bedding without any other feeling except that of being dead tired.

    Dead tired she did feel.

  • Mi nenion pli postulus, krom ke oni montru al mi sindonecon kaj estimon. - I would demand nothing more, except that one show me devotion and esteem.
  • Ne ekzistas alia bono por la homo, krom manĝi kaj trinki. - There is no other good for man(kind), except for eating and drinking.

Krom of addition

A krom of addition shows something that is definitely true. After this expression, something else is added that is also true. Normally, ankaŭ (also) (in some cases ankoraŭ (still) or (even)) is present in the sentence to emphasize the sense of addition:

  • Krom Petro tie estis ankaŭ ĉiuj aliaj miaj fratoj. = Aldone al Petro ankaŭ ili estis tie. - Besides Peter there were also all my other brothers. = In addition to Peter, also they were there.
  • Per pruntedono ofte oni perdas krom sia havo ankaŭ la amikon. = Aldone al tio, ke oni perdas sian havon, oni perdas ankaŭ la amikon. - By giving a loan one often loses, besides one's possession, also one's friend. = In addition to losing your possession, you also lose your friend.
  • La luno ne leviĝis ankoraŭ sufiĉe alte, krom tio estis iom da nebulo. = Aldone al tio, ke la luno ne leviĝis sufiĉe, estis ankaŭ iom da nebulo. - The moon had not yet risen high enough, besides that, there was some fog. = In addition to the fact that, that the moon was not high enough, there was also some fog.
  • Krom Karlo, venis lia tuta familio. = Aldone al tio, ke venis Karlo... - Besides Karlo, his whole family came. = In addition to Karlo coming...
  • Krom tio, ke li venis malfrue, li kondutis tre malbone. - Besides coming late, he even behaved very badly.

Risk of misunderstanding

Normally the context clearly shows whether we are dealing with the krom of addition or of exception. In the presence of ankaŭ, ankoraŭ or , krom is without a doubt the krom of addition. Without the presence of those words, and if the sentence is negative, then krom is without a doubt the krom of exception. For absolute clarity in this meaning of exception we can instead use kun escepto de, escepte de, escept(int)e + N-ending, or ekskluzive de. For the meaning of addition we can use aldone al, inkluzive de.

Anstataŭ and krom + other role markers

Anstataŭ (instead of) and krom (except) are somewhat unusual prepositions, because they don't indicate a role in the phrase! They only show that something else has taken on something's role, or that something is considered separately. Normally the context shows whether the role taken over is that of the subject, the object, or some sort of adject. According to necessity, another role marker (such as a preposition or an N-ending) may be added, to show the expression's actual role in the phrase:

  • Li faris tion pro ŝi anstataŭ pro mi. - He did that on account of her, instead of me.

    If we were to say anstataŭ mi it would seem that he is substituting me as the agent, that he did it instead of me doing it. Pro shows that mi plays the role of the "cause", and that she replaces me in this role.

  • Petro batis Paŭlon anstataŭ Vilhelmon. - Peter hit Paul instead of William.

    Peter has beaten not William, but Paul. Compare with: Peter has beaten Paul instead of William. =& Not William, but Peter has beaten Paul.

  • Ili veturis al Londono anstataŭ al Bath. - They travelled to London instead of to Bath.
  • Kiu alportas oferojn al dioj, krom al la Eternulo sole, tiu estu ekstermita. - Anyone who brings sacrifices to gods, other than the Lord alone, should be exterminated.(Exodus 22.20)

    Without al it would seem that only the Lord can bring sacrifices to gods without being exterminated. Al is necessary to make it clear that the Lord is the recipient of the sacrifices.

  • Neniu rajtas uzi la novan aŭton, krom en la okazo, se mi tion diros. - Nobody is allowed to use the new car except on my say-so.(lit. except on the occasion if I say that.)

    En shows that okazo is a temporal circumstantial complement.

  • Krom Vilhelmon Petro batis ankaŭ Paŭlon. - Besides William Peter also beat Paul.

    The N-ending after krom is always superfluous, although not an error in these sentences. No confusion can arise. Here the location of ankaŭ prevents misunderstanding. Compare: Krom Vilhelmo ankaŭ Petro batis Paŭlon. = Beside William beating Paul, Peter also did.

Another explanation of this is the implied infinitive:...anstataŭ fari tion pro mi. ...anstataŭ peti de vi... ...anstataŭ bati Vilhelmon. ...anstataŭ veturi al Bath. Krom bati Vilhelmon...

Independent use

If we want to use anstataŭ or krom independently, without mention of that which indicates the role, then we must add the adverb ending: anstataŭe = "instead of that"; krome = "except for that":

  • Li ne donis al mi kafon. Anstataŭe li donis teon. = Anstataŭ kafo... - He did not give me coffee. Instead he gave tea. = Instead of coffee...
  • Krome vi devas pagi por matenmanĝo. = Krom tio, kion vi jam pagis... - Besides that you have to pay for breakfast. = Besides what you already paid...

It's also possible to use an adjective ending:Ni devis almeti la anstataŭan radon. = ...that wheel, which serves as a spare to the other wheel. Vi devas pagi kroman kotizon. = additional fee, besides the dues you have already paid.

Krome (except) and kroma (additional, other) always have a meaning of addition, never of exception.

Back to the top